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The Rise And Fall Of Orkut: Google’s Decade-Long Social Media Experiment

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Monday 30 June 2014 5:04 am

On Monday, Google announced the end of its first foray into social networking, Orkut. September 30, 2014 will be the 10-year-old network’s final day. 

ReadWrite has been covering underdog Orkut since its invention. We followed its rise to dominance in India and Brazil and its ever-constant (if somewhat understated) battle with Facebook for the eyeballs of international social media users. 

We took a peek into the archives to highlight some major moments in Orkut history. 

Orkut Through The Ages

September 2006: In our Social Networking Faceoff, we dubbed Orkut the second largest social network on the Internet, second only to MySpace. Also that month, we discovered that 70% of Orkut users are Brazilian

Orkut in 2007Orkut in 2007

May 2009: Facebook began battling Orkut in earnest. Noticing Orkut’s presence in India, Facebook became conveniently available in Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, and all other Indian languages. The announcement came after Zuckerberg made a trip to India to talk with technologists.

June 2009: Orkut remained the most popular social network in India and Brazil.

February 2009: Orkut made the news when the Supreme Court of India denied legal protection to a teen being sued over comments he made on Orkut. The case set a global precedent for how far freedom of speech extends over social media.

August 2010: Google began marketing Orkut as a place you could limit what you shared to certain groups of friends. Sound familiar? It’s the same theory behind Google+ Circles

October 2010: Even as Facebook was growing in adoption all over the world, Orkut held on steadfastly to its Brazilian majority. Orkut must have really liked futbol.

June 2011: Google launches Google+, making it look as if the company saw the writing on the wall when it came to Orkut. It may or may not be coincidence that the shutdown of Orkut was announced almost exactly three years after the launch of Google+.

Orkut in 2010Orkut in 2010

September 2011: Orkut owned 43% of the social networking market in Brazil. 

January 2012: After a lot of effort, including Mark Zuckerberg making a trip to Brazil to spread the Facebook gospel, Facebook finally overtook Orkut in the one country it still dominated.

June 2014: Our first time mentioning Orkut since Facebook overtook it in Brazil. Unlike the dropped bomb that was Google Reader, Orkut enjoyed a slow decline. Now that it’s gone, Google said it will devote its “energy and resources” on YouTube, Blogger and Google+. 

So long, Orkut! We’re not sure anyone is going to miss you.

Lead image “Children of Brasil” by Flickr user Alobos Life.

The Internet Of Things Will Need Millions Of Developers By 2020

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Saturday 28 June 2014 4:38 pm

It’s standard to size a market by the number of widgets sold, but in the Internet of Things, which numbers sensors and devices in the billions, widget counts don’t really matter. In part this is because the real money in IoT is not in the “things,” but rather in the Internet-enabled services that stitch them together.

More to the point, it’s because the size of the IoT market fundamentally depends on the number of developers creating value in it. While today there are just 300,000 developers contributing to the IoT, a new report from VisionMobile projects a whopping 4.5 million developers by 2020, reflecting a 57% compound annual growth rate and a massive market opportunity.

Start Making Sense

In the last 30 years we’ve created a fair amount of data, but it pales compared to what we’ve generated just in the last two years. Ninety percent of the world’s data was generated in the last two years alone, much of it by machines. Such machine-produced data dwarfs human-generated data. 

In such an IoT world, devices are not the problem. According to Gartner, we’ll have 26 billion of them by 2020. Connecting them isn’t, either. As VisionMobile’s report makes clear, however, “making sense of data” is the real challenge. 

It’s also the big opportunity:

Just honing in on the middle column, Google acquired Nest for $3.2 billion, and just six days ago Google’s Nest acquired Dropcam for $555 million. Dropcam’s cameras upload more data every day than users put up on YouTube. That’s a lot of data, and a lot of money.

It all comes down to developers, because it’s developers and the companies they work for that are pulling intelligence from the data.

More Data Requires More Developers

Fortunately, we’re about to get a huge crowd of developers actively contributing to IoT applications—4.5 million of them by 2020, according to VisionMobile.

As VisionMobile suggests, “the only way to make a profit in the Internet of Things is to build a network of entrepreneurs who create unique value on top of commodity hardware, connectivity and cloud services.” Here’s a more detailed explanation:

The key to being successful with developer-centric business models is to find a way to bundle your core product with the new demand generated by developers. Much like Apple bundles its devices with million apps in the App Store, Google bundles its online services with Android devices. Through these services, Google collects user intelligence and creates opportunities to expand its ad inventory. Amazon as well bundles its e-commerce services with subsidized Kindle tablets (and soon smartphones) to drive user traffic to its virtual store shelves. 

In other words, developers aren’t the buying audience: they create the ecosystem that makes other buyers interested in buying hardware, cloud services or some other value. 

What Will They Build?

As much as we may want to fantasize about refrigerators talking to coffee machines, the reality is that we have no clue what meaningful applications will emerge from the IoT opportunity. As the report authors state, “Demand for IoT technology will not come from a single killer app, but from thousands of unexpected new use cases.”

No single company will win in the IoT, nor will any one app. Such developer-driven demand “will create new Internet of Things markets that are several times bigger than the ones we could ever predict with a spreadsheet that extrapolates today’s market.” The only thing we know for sure is that developers are fundamental to making IoT a big, profitable market, even if they don’t pay a single dime for a single sensor in that market. 

Lead image by Flickr contributor Official GDC, CC 2.0

Why the Insider Threat is More Dangerous to AT&T than Weev

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Saturday 28 June 2014 10:34 am

ATT has dealt with leaked customer information before. Back in 2010, 114,000 email addresses of ATT’s Apple iPad 3G customers were leaked.

In that incident, Goatse Security and security researcher Andrew ‘weev’ Auernheimer claimed that they were able to exploit a flaw on the ATT Website. Auernheimer was arrested by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation in 2010 and found guilty in 2012. Auernheimer’s conviction was overturned on April 11.

“The Auernheimer breach was problematic in that any user accessing the ATT Website was able to obtain email address information on iPad users,” Bob Stratton, general partner at Mach37, told eWEEK. “[The latest] event seems more significant in that authorized insiders with access to the provisioning system are said to have been misusing access.”

Bishop Fox’s DeMesy noted that while the Auernheimer breach only affected email addresses, the latest compromise at ATT disclosed phone records and SSNs.

Read the full story at eWEEK:
ATT Insider Data Breach More Dangerous Than External Hacking

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

Cisco Pays $175 Million for Tail-f

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Friday 27 June 2014 10:25 am

Cisco announced on June 17, the acquisition of privately held Tail-f Systems for $175 million in cash. The deal is set to close in the fourth quarter of Cisco’s fiscal 2014 year. With the acquisition of Tail-f, the Cisco product portfolio gains some much-needed device and network configuration management solutions.

Tail-f’s technologies center around the orchestration of physical and virtual networking. Tail-f’s core product platform is the Network Control System (NCS), a multi-vendor network device management tool. The NCS tool makes extensive use of the YANG data modeling language specification and the NETCONF protocol to understand device and network configuration.

Read the full story at EnterpriseNetworkingPlanet:
Cisco Acquires Tail-f for $175 Million

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

Cisco Pays $175 Million for Tail-f

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Friday 27 June 2014 10:25 am

Cisco announced on June 17, the acquisition of privately held Tail-f Systems for $175 million in cash. The deal is set to close in the fourth quarter of Cisco’s fiscal 2014 year. With the acquisition of Tail-f, the Cisco product portfolio gains some much-needed device and network configuration management solutions.

Tail-f’s technologies center around the orchestration of physical and virtual networking. Tail-f’s core product platform is the Network Control System (NCS), a multi-vendor network device management tool. The NCS tool makes extensive use of the YANG data modeling language specification and the NETCONF protocol to understand device and network configuration.

Read the full story at EnterpriseNetworkingPlanet:
Cisco Acquires Tail-f for $175 Million

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

How To Host A Website With Raspberry Pi

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Friday 27 June 2014 4:24 am

How To Host A Website With Raspberry Pi

Never underestimate the miniscule, $35 Raspberry Pi. Although it’s marketed as an experimental machine aimed at helping you learn to code, there’s nothing entry-level about its capabilities. 

In a pinch, you can even use your Raspberry Pi as a Web server. You can host a simple site or store files in the cloud so you can access them at any time—no monthly hosting fees, limited templates, or other barriers to your creativity.

Why do you need a server? The trend has been against running your own hardware and instead storing files and running programs in what’s called “the cloud”—someone else’s servers, to which you connect over the Internet.

But a server’s a server, whether it’s on your desk or in a datacenter. At its most basic level, a server is a combination of software and hardware that responds to requests across a computer network in order to provide services. The computer network could be as small as your home network or as big as the World Wide Web.

In the case of a Web server, the Raspberry Pi responds to requests to serve up Web pages, which can be simple HTML or sophisticated Web-based apps.

Because it requires little electricity and you can keep it running indefinitely, a Pi makes a great server. At my house, my two Raspberry Pis are both running as servers. One is a print server and also runs my virtual private network, or VPN; the other is a Web server. Pis are good at multitaking: I used one of my servers to wire up my fish tank so my fish could send me text messages.

My Pi Web server hosts a single Web page that connects to a MySQL database, which in turn gets its data from a Python program, which in turn is getting data from a smart thermometer—and all of that is being hosted on the Pi. That sounds kind of complicated, but the setup shows you can seriously do a lot with something as small as a Pi. 

This project is a good candidate for a Pi Web server because it is very low traffic. I’m hosting a resource that I plan to check from time to time, but that won’t be of much use to other people.

I can’t emphasize this strongly enough: A Raspberry Pi Web server is not a business solution. There are a few different reasons you don’t want to host a highly trafficked site.

The first reason is that Raspberry Pi is still not as powerful as your standard home PC. If I shared a link to my own Pi Web server in this article for ReadWrite readers to view, it’d probably crash. And since it’s connected to my own home network, I might not be able to get on the Internet myself because of all the traffic!

The second reason is that, mostly for the scenario listed above, your Internet service provider probably won’t allow it. My ISP, Verizon, even has a section where it mentions hosting your own server:

“The Service is a consumer grade service and is not designed for or intended to be used for any commercial purpose… For example, you may not provide Internet access to third parties through a wired or wireless connection or use the Service to facilitate public Internet access (such as through a Wi-Fi hotspot), use it for high volume purposes, or engage in similar activities that constitute such use (commercial or non-commercial)… You also may not exceed the bandwidth usage limitations that Verizon may establish from time to time for the Service, or use the Service to host any type of server.” 

I’m definitely skirting the rules by hosting three different servers with my wireless network, but the fact that they’re all for personal use instead of commercial is probably the reason Verizon has turned a blind eye. A friend with a server hosted over Verizon had the same response: “They only sent me a warning when I set up an email server, since [Verizon] thought it could be used to send spam.”

So hosting a commercial or business site is out of the question. That still leaves personal resources open; sites and storage spaces designed for your own use. Like my Web server, which lets me monitor activity in my home aquarium even when I’m not there.

For this tutorial, let’s forget about databases and sensors—you can read about the details of how I handled those in my earlier piece—and everything but the HTML. I’ll show you how to quickly and easily build a home on the Web, hosted on Raspberry Pi. 

Setting Up The Pi

Your Pi isn’t ready to host a website right out of the box. First, it needs three things from you:

  • A router and modem. It may seem obvious, but you’ll need a router and a modem from your Internet service provider. Even though you don’t have to pay for Web hosting, you still have to pay for your Internet connection. You may have gotten just one box from your ISP, but usually that’s a router and modem built into one device. A separate router will give you more flexibility to connect multiple devices.
  • An Ethernet cable. Or, less recommended, a wireless USB adapter. Either way, you’ll need the Pi to have a permanent Internet connection. 
  • An operating system. I recommend Raspbian. In order to set up an operating system on your Pi for the first time, look at my tutorial
  • SSH (Secure Shell) access. A Web server doesn’t need a keyboard, monitor or mouse. Instead, you’ll access the Pi remotely through your laptop or another device that has those things. Here’s my tutorial on how to set up SSH for the first time. 

Setting up Internet access, an operating system, and SSH are necessary first steps for a number of cool Raspberry Pi projects. It’s a good idea to get used to doing these three things every time you unbox a new Raspberry Pi. 

Finally, let’s make sure everything is up to date: 

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

This will refresh the Pi’s knowledge of its packages and their dependencies. If you’re trying to install a package (like Apache, as we will in a minute) this will prevent the Pi from frustratingly being unable to locate where the latest version of the package is stored online.

Installing Apache

How do you turn a Pi into a machine capable of hosting websites? You do what other server maintainers have been doing since the earliest days of the Web—you install Apache Web server software.

When I say Apache is a Web server, I mean it’s a program that listens for server access requests from Internet browsers and grants them if permitted. So if you want anyone to be able to access a website on your Raspberry Pi—including yourself—you need to install a Web server. 

The name is a play on “patchy,” since its creators were always patching the software to fix problems. It’s gotten a lot better since those early days, though. Apache is a free, open-source HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Web server application. When you type a URL into your Web browser, a Web server somewhere replies by serving up a Web page. Apache is popular for these purposes: Roughly 50 percent of sites are hosted by servers running Apache.

Fortunately, this is a one-step process. Go to the command line and type:

sudo apt-get install apache2 php5 libapache2-mod-php5

This prompt accomplishes several things all at once. It installs the latest version of Apache, the server we need to use. It also installs two other packages: PHP and a library that helps Apache work together with PHP.

For a basic HTML site that remains static and doesn’t have many features aside from text, you do not need PHP. But if you ever want your site to connect to a database, you’ll need a web framework. PHP is a Web framework that adds more functionality to basic HTML websites. 

For example, if you wanted to install WordPress on your Raspberry Pi hosted site, you’d need to make sure you could install at least one database. 

When Apache is finished installing, restart it with this command to activate the program:

sudo service apache2 restart

Making A Basic Website

As soon as the Raspberry Pi finishes processing the above command, it instantly generates a basic, working website.  

Go to your Web browser and type in your Pi’s local address. This will look something like 192.168.X.X. (If you haven’t obtained that address already, see my instructions on using the sudo ifconfig command to get it.) A very basic site should appear, headlined with the phrase, “It works!” This simple index.html page came preinstalled along with Apache.

Want to tweak it? Visit the index.html page on your Pi: 

cd /var/www/
sudo nano index.html

Try changing the words around, saving the file, and navigating back to the Pi’s local address again to watch your changes take form. 

Getting It Online

You can access and edit your website, but it’s only visible to you on your local network. That’s a good thing—you don’t want it to be this easy for people to access the Internet in your home! 

So how do you get your Web server on the actual Web, not just your local network? Think about the way the Internet gets into your home. Your ISP gave you a box that serves as the router. When you access the Internet, your request goes through your router to the Internet, and then back through the router back to your computer.  

More technically, the ISP is sending the request back to port 80, the default port for HTTP requests. Or as we know them, Web-browsing requests. 

Our goal is to have requests come from the Internet and go through the router to our Pi.  

The problem? We’ve got lots of devices at home—computers, tablets, cell phones, to name a few—aside from the Raspberry Pi. Trying to direct traffic to just the Raspberry Pi, out of all your devices on the network, would be like sending a letter to a person who lives in an apartment complex without specifying the apartment number. The mail would be returned to its sender. 

And that’s not the only problem. We’ve got to consider that in many cases, the router comes equipped with a built-in firewall, a security system that controls inbound and outbound traffic. Usually, the goal is to not have people from the Internet access your home network. But this time, we want to punch a Raspberry-Pi-shaped hole in the firewall for traffic to get through. 

Luckily, there’s one solution to both problems: we forward port 80 to something else. If we say the Raspberry Pi is at, for example, port 8080, the router will forward the traffic there. 

In my examples, the numbers 2.1.1.1 are just mimicking the numerical pattern of URL requests. Usually, you request a URL by typing in a domain name; this is just how the computer reads it. We’ll go over converting our IP addresses into human-readable domain names in a few more steps.

A Forwarding Order For Your Pi

This next step will depend on the type of router you have, and may differ depending on that particular router’s software. 

Here are some port forwarding tutorials for major router manufacturers: 

This is the most independent part of the tutorial, so you might be asking yourself, “What happens if I skip this and just assign a domain name to the Raspberry Pi’s IP address?”

I tried this and it’s possible. But don’t expect your ISP to allow it for very long.

Just for kicks, I tried skipping the port forward and applying a domain name to my Raspberry Pi’s IP address. Since I could identify its IP address as unique from the other devices on my network, there should be no problem, right?

Wrong. My ISP, Verizon, blocked access in fewer than 60 seconds. That’s probably because it judged that I was doing something unwise. I warned you earlier that your ISP will forbid activities that it thinks are against its terms of service. 

When malicious bots crawl the Web, sometimes they’ll ping port 80 by default, just to see if they can get access. In response, some ISPs will block inbound traffic to port 80 by default. Verizon didn’t want me to make a website accessible at port 80 because it’s the standard. When using any other port, however, Verizon hasn’t given me any trouble.  

Getting Yourself A Domain Name

Now, people can access your site from anywhere—if they know your Raspberry Pi’s external IP address. But most people are accustomed to writing a domain name request in actual words. 

Fortunately, there are free services you can use to translate your IP address into a domain name. I use DNSdynamic most frequently, so my instructions will reflect that service. 

Sign up for DNSdynamic, and secure an available domain, which will look something like “Example.dnsdynamic.com.”

DNSdynamic will helpfully tell you your current external IP address. I’ve blurred mine out for safety; you don’t want to share this with people. But instead of your own IP address, you’ll want to fill in the Raspberry Pi’s external IP address, which you’ll have secured after the port forward. 

Now you’ve got a human-readable domain name that forwards to the Pi’s IP address.

And you’re done! Share your domain name with friends or family or anybody you’d like to be able to access your site. Just don’t get too popular—because if your Pi gets too much traffic, you’ll have to do some explaining to your ISP.

How To Host A Website With Raspberry Pi

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Friday 27 June 2014 4:24 am

How To Host A Website With Raspberry Pi

Never underestimate the miniscule, $35 Raspberry Pi. Although it’s marketed as an experimental machine aimed at helping you learn to code, there’s nothing entry-level about its capabilities. 

In a pinch, you can even use your Raspberry Pi as a Web server. You can host a simple site or store files in the cloud so you can access them at any time—no monthly hosting fees, limited templates, or other barriers to your creativity.

Why do you need a server? The trend has been against running your own hardware and instead storing files and running programs in what’s called “the cloud”—someone else’s servers, to which you connect over the Internet.

But a server’s a server, whether it’s on your desk or in a datacenter. At its most basic level, a server is a combination of software and hardware that responds to requests across a computer network in order to provide services. The computer network could be as small as your home network or as big as the World Wide Web.

In the case of a Web server, the Raspberry Pi responds to requests to serve up Web pages, which can be simple HTML or sophisticated Web-based apps.

Because it requires little electricity and you can keep it running indefinitely, a Pi makes a great server. At my house, my two Raspberry Pis are both running as servers. One is a print server and also runs my virtual private network, or VPN; the other is a Web server. Pis are good at multitaking: I used one of my servers to wire up my fish tank so my fish could send me text messages.

My Pi Web server hosts a single Web page that connects to a MySQL database, which in turn gets its data from a Python program, which in turn is getting data from a smart thermometer—and all of that is being hosted on the Pi. That sounds kind of complicated, but the setup shows you can seriously do a lot with something as small as a Pi. 

This project is a good candidate for a Pi Web server because it is very low traffic. I’m hosting a resource that I plan to check from time to time, but that won’t be of much use to other people.

I can’t emphasize this strongly enough: A Raspberry Pi Web server is not a business solution. There are a few different reasons you don’t want to host a highly trafficked site.

The first reason is that Raspberry Pi is still not as powerful as your standard home PC. If I shared a link to my own Pi Web server in this article for ReadWrite readers to view, it’d probably crash. And since it’s connected to my own home network, I might not be able to get on the Internet myself because of all the traffic!

The second reason is that, mostly for the scenario listed above, your Internet service provider probably won’t allow it. My ISP, Verizon, even has a section where it mentions hosting your own server:

“The Service is a consumer grade service and is not designed for or intended to be used for any commercial purpose… For example, you may not provide Internet access to third parties through a wired or wireless connection or use the Service to facilitate public Internet access (such as through a Wi-Fi hotspot), use it for high volume purposes, or engage in similar activities that constitute such use (commercial or non-commercial)… You also may not exceed the bandwidth usage limitations that Verizon may establish from time to time for the Service, or use the Service to host any type of server.” 

I’m definitely skirting the rules by hosting three different servers with my wireless network, but the fact that they’re all for personal use instead of commercial is probably the reason Verizon has turned a blind eye. A friend with a server hosted over Verizon had the same response: “They only sent me a warning when I set up an email server, since [Verizon] thought it could be used to send spam.”

So hosting a commercial or business site is out of the question. That still leaves personal resources open; sites and storage spaces designed for your own use. Like my Web server, which lets me monitor activity in my home aquarium even when I’m not there.

For this tutorial, let’s forget about databases and sensors—you can read about the details of how I handled those in my earlier piece—and everything but the HTML. I’ll show you how to quickly and easily build a home on the Web, hosted on Raspberry Pi. 

Setting Up The Pi

Your Pi isn’t ready to host a website right out of the box. First, it needs three things from you:

  • A router and modem. It may seem obvious, but you’ll need a router and a modem from your Internet service provider. Even though you don’t have to pay for Web hosting, you still have to pay for your Internet connection. You may have gotten just one box from your ISP, but usually that’s a router and modem built into one device. A separate router will give you more flexibility to connect multiple devices.
  • An Ethernet cable. Or, less recommended, a wireless USB adapter. Either way, you’ll need the Pi to have a permanent Internet connection. 
  • An operating system. I recommend Raspbian. In order to set up an operating system on your Pi for the first time, look at my tutorial
  • SSH (Secure Shell) access. A Web server doesn’t need a keyboard, monitor or mouse. Instead, you’ll access the Pi remotely through your laptop or another device that has those things. Here’s my tutorial on how to set up SSH for the first time. 

Setting up Internet access, an operating system, and SSH are necessary first steps for a number of cool Raspberry Pi projects. It’s a good idea to get used to doing these three things every time you unbox a new Raspberry Pi. 

Finally, let’s make sure everything is up to date: 

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

This will refresh the Pi’s knowledge of its packages and their dependencies. If you’re trying to install a package (like Apache, as we will in a minute) this will prevent the Pi from frustratingly being unable to locate where the latest version of the package is stored online.

Installing Apache

How do you turn a Pi into a machine capable of hosting websites? You do what other server maintainers have been doing since the earliest days of the Web—you install Apache Web server software.

When I say Apache is a Web server, I mean it’s a program that listens for server access requests from Internet browsers and grants them if permitted. So if you want anyone to be able to access a website on your Raspberry Pi—including yourself—you need to install a Web server. 

The name is a play on “patchy,” since its creators were always patching the software to fix problems. It’s gotten a lot better since those early days, though. Apache is a free, open-source HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Web server application. When you type a URL into your Web browser, a Web server somewhere replies by serving up a Web page. Apache is popular for these purposes: Roughly 50 percent of sites are hosted by servers running Apache.

Fortunately, this is a one-step process. Go to the command line and type:

sudo apt-get install apache2 php5 libapache2-mod-php5

This prompt accomplishes several things all at once. It installs the latest version of Apache, the server we need to use. It also installs two other packages: PHP and a library that helps Apache work together with PHP.

For a basic HTML site that remains static and doesn’t have many features aside from text, you do not need PHP. But if you ever want your site to connect to a database, you’ll need a web framework. PHP is a Web framework that adds more functionality to basic HTML websites. 

For example, if you wanted to install WordPress on your Raspberry Pi hosted site, you’d need to make sure you could install at least one database. 

When Apache is finished installing, restart it with this command to activate the program:

sudo service apache2 restart

Making A Basic Website

As soon as the Raspberry Pi finishes processing the above command, it instantly generates a basic, working website.  

Go to your Web browser and type in your Pi’s local address. This will look something like 192.168.X.X. (If you haven’t obtained that address already, see my instructions on using the sudo ifconfig command to get it.) A very basic site should appear, headlined with the phrase, “It works!” This simple index.html page came preinstalled along with Apache.

Want to tweak it? Visit the index.html page on your Pi: 

cd /var/www/
sudo nano index.html

Try changing the words around, saving the file, and navigating back to the Pi’s local address again to watch your changes take form. 

Getting It Online

You can access and edit your website, but it’s only visible to you on your local network. That’s a good thing—you don’t want it to be this easy for people to access the Internet in your home! 

So how do you get your Web server on the actual Web, not just your local network? Think about the way the Internet gets into your home. Your ISP gave you a box that serves as the router. When you access the Internet, your request goes through your router to the Internet, and then back through the router back to your computer.  

More technically, the ISP is sending the request back to port 80, the default port for HTTP requests. Or as we know them, Web-browsing requests. 

Our goal is to have requests come from the Internet and go through the router to our Pi.  

The problem? We’ve got lots of devices at home—computers, tablets, cell phones, to name a few—aside from the Raspberry Pi. Trying to direct traffic to just the Raspberry Pi, out of all your devices on the network, would be like sending a letter to a person who lives in an apartment complex without specifying the apartment number. The mail would be returned to its sender. 

And that’s not the only problem. We’ve got to consider that in many cases, the router comes equipped with a built-in firewall, a security system that controls inbound and outbound traffic. Usually, the goal is to not have people from the Internet access your home network. But this time, we want to punch a Raspberry-Pi-shaped hole in the firewall for traffic to get through. 

Luckily, there’s one solution to both problems: we forward port 80 to something else. If we say the Raspberry Pi is at, for example, port 8080, the router will forward the traffic there. 

In my examples, the numbers 2.1.1.1 are just mimicking the numerical pattern of URL requests. Usually, you request a URL by typing in a domain name; this is just how the computer reads it. We’ll go over converting our IP addresses into human-readable domain names in a few more steps.

A Forwarding Order For Your Pi

This next step will depend on the type of router you have, and may differ depending on that particular router’s software. 

Here are some port forwarding tutorials for major router manufacturers: 

This is the most independent part of the tutorial, so you might be asking yourself, “What happens if I skip this and just assign a domain name to the Raspberry Pi’s IP address?”

I tried this and it’s possible. But don’t expect your ISP to allow it for very long.

Just for kicks, I tried skipping the port forward and applying a domain name to my Raspberry Pi’s IP address. Since I could identify its IP address as unique from the other devices on my network, there should be no problem, right?

Wrong. My ISP, Verizon, blocked access in fewer than 60 seconds. That’s probably because it judged that I was doing something unwise. I warned you earlier that your ISP will forbid activities that it thinks are against its terms of service. 

When malicious bots crawl the Web, sometimes they’ll ping port 80 by default, just to see if they can get access. In response, some ISPs will block inbound traffic to port 80 by default. Verizon didn’t want me to make a website accessible at port 80 because it’s the standard. When using any other port, however, Verizon hasn’t given me any trouble.  

Getting Yourself A Domain Name

Now, people can access your site from anywhere—if they know your Raspberry Pi’s external IP address. But most people are accustomed to writing a domain name request in actual words. 

Fortunately, there are free services you can use to translate your IP address into a domain name. I use DNSdynamic most frequently, so my instructions will reflect that service. 

Sign up for DNSdynamic, and secure an available domain, which will look something like “Example.dnsdynamic.com.”

DNSdynamic will helpfully tell you your current external IP address. I’ve blurred mine out for safety; you don’t want to share this with people. But instead of your own IP address, you’ll want to fill in the Raspberry Pi’s external IP address, which you’ll have secured after the port forward. 

Now you’ve got a human-readable domain name that forwards to the Pi’s IP address.

And you’re done! Share your domain name with friends or family or anybody you’d like to be able to access your site. Just don’t get too popular—because if your Pi gets too much traffic, you’ll have to do some explaining to your ISP.

HP Choses Debian, Replaces Ubuntu, for Helion Cloud [VIDEO]

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Thursday 26 June 2014 10:19 am

Prior to Helion, HP had another OpenStack cloud effort that is now being rebased with a different Linux distribution at its core. In a video interview, HP Helion Cloud PlatformBill Hilf, VP Product Management for HP Cloud, explains what role Linux plays within a cloud platform like HP Helion.

HP Helion uses its own version of Linux based on the the open-source Debian Linux operating system at its core, which is a shift away from Ubuntu Linux, the Linux distribution previous iterations of HP’s cloud efforts had been using.

Read the full story at ServerWatch:
Which Linux Distribution Powers HP Helion Cloud? [VIDEO]

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

10 Things Google Didn’t Talk About At I/O 2014

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Wednesday 25 June 2014 3:59 pm

Google packed its I/O keynote presentation full of Android. The Android Wear software developer kit is ready to go, and Google laid out its plans for taking over your car and your living room. Android apps will soon run on Chromebooks and Samsung is making a Android Wear smartwatch. 

But Google didn’t hit on everything we were expecting. Here are 10 things that Google didn’t announce at I/O, many of which might still pop up later this year or early next:

  • Android Silver: Google is reportedly working on a reference design program for high end smartphones that will be built by its manufacturing partners and sold by carriers. Android Silver is expected to replace the Nexus program in 2015.
  • Moto 360 launch: Samsung and LG are building Android Wear smartwatches and will be available to order today. But the most anticipated of the Android Wear watches is the round Moto 360 from Motorola. Google said it would be available later this summer, but gave no date.
  • Android Nearby: A new proximity service from Google baked into Android was rumored to be ready for I/O. Android Nearby was supposed to work a lot like Apple’s iBeacons. Nearby may be a feature that is baked within the “L” preview of Android, but it wasn’t featured during the keynote by Sundar Pichai, Google’s head of Android and Chrome, or Google’s head of Android engineering Dave Burke.
  • Google Glass: Google’s pariah of a wearable eyewear wasn’t mentioned once during I/O, despite the fact that it’s getting a hardware upgrade
  • A new Nexus device: Google is changing the way it announces and launches Android platform updates. Instead of announcing and launching it on the same day and having developers and manufacturers catch up, Google announced the preview of the “L” version of Android. Be it Lollipop or Lemon Merengue, the official version of “L” will launch later this year. But since Google didn’t announce the official release of the newest Android version, there’s no corresponding Nexus device to go with it. If you’re waiting for the “Nexus 6” smartphone or “Nexus 8” tablet, you’ll need to hold your breath until the fall.
  • Project Tango and Project Ara: The mobile 3D machine vision project codenamed Tango has a large booth on the third floor of Moscone West, but Google didn’t mention any updates to the project during the keynote. Same goes for the “lego kit” modular smartphone, Project Ara, which started as an advanced Motorola research experiment. 
  • Chrome OS Updates: Google’s laptop operating system got a little attention during the keynote, but no official updates outside of the fact that Android apps will soon run on Chromebooks. New split screen and touch screen capabilities were no-shows this year.
  • Nest and Android Home: The theme of Android “L” is that Android is really going everywhere. There’s Android Wear, Android TV, Android Auto … but no Android Home, as some had expected following Google’s acquisition of smart-thermostat maker Nest
  • Android Studio: Last year Google announced the Android Studio tool suite to give its developers a dedicated place to build Android apps. Android Studio has been in beta ever since, Google didn’t say anything about it moving into full production—or about any updates—during the I/O keynote.
  • Google+: The social network got no love at all this I/O, and didn’t even feature in any of the presentations near as I can tell. Looks like there might be something to the rumors that it’s getting a downgrade in Google’s plans following the sudden departure of exec Vic Gundotra back in April.

Lead image of Sundar Pichai at I/O by Owen Thomas for ReadWrite

Rackspace CTO Details Cloud Security Playbook [VIDEO]

Posted by eXactBot Hosting | News | Tuesday 24 June 2014 9:33 am

When security vulnerabilities strike in the cloud, it’s important to make sure there is a playbook in place to know how to respond. Cloud vendor Rackspace has seen its fair share of security incidents, including the Heartbleed security vulnerability, which left the entire IT industry scrambling back in April.

In a video interview with eWEEK, John Engates, CTO of Rackspace, explains how his company dealt with Heartbleed and what the Rackspace playbook is for dealing with security incidents.

Read the full story at eWEEK:
Inside Rackspace’s Playbook for Security Events

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com. Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

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